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Glossary of Barcode Terms
A variety of definitions of technical barcoding terms can be found here. If you don’t understand a term or we haven’t included something, please contact us.
Also called Matrix Barcodes – Refers to barcodes that encode information vertically and horizontally instead of traditional 1D barcodes. These are capable of encoding much more information than normal barcodes. QR Codes
are the most common type of 2D Barcodes.
These are sequential numbers usually encoded in Code-39 or Code-128 format barcodes.
Labels with a different barcode number on each are stuck onto assets of a business to keep track of what goes in and out. These formats of barcodes are used in this way in libraries for lending out books as well.
A type of 2D Barcode with an Aztec pyramid-like centre finder pattern (A pattern in the centre of the code used by the scanner to establish a centre point). These are used primarily for tickets of transport providers such as Eurostar.
The height of the shortest bars in a barcode. This refers to the bars only and does not include the number at the bottom.
For barcode specifications. Refers to the total width of all of the bars. This excludes the quiet zones on either side of the bars.
An Image used to contain a small amount of information to be easily read by a barcode scanner or cell phone app.
Refers to a purchase option that some barcode retailers offer whereby both the Barcode number and the Barcode images
can be purchased simultaneously. This sometimes also includes a guarantee certificate and can also include barcode registration.
An optional service
offered by some alternative barcode suppliers to increase the internet profile of barcodes and ensure that the product information appears when cell phone apps scan the barcode. There is no mandatory registration database for barcode numbers.
An additional digit is calculated using a special algorithm and added to the end of a barcode. This helps ensure the barcode is not accidentally keyed in the wrong as if one digit is incorrect. The check-digit will change. Also called a checksum digit.
A barcode symbology used mostly for asset tracking
. It can only encode numeric data. It has a high data density, so tiny items should use labels instead of code-39 as code-128 should scan more easily.
A barcode symbology used mostly for asset tracking
. Can encode alpha-numeric data (letters and numbers). Code-39 has a low data density, so small goods should not be labelled because small barcodes of this type may be difficult for a scanner to pick up.
Refers the section of a barcode number following the initial 3 digits. The Company prefix is the section following that doesn’t change across an entire company’s barcode selection. The length of this is determined by how many individual barcode numbers the company owns (i.e. if they own 10,000 barcode numbers, then the company prefix needs to be shorter to fit within the 13-digit threshold).
Refers to the first three digits of a retail barcode number
, indicating which GS1 member organisation the barcode came from. A common misconception is that this shows the country of origin of the product when it only shows the country of origin of the barcode itself.
A type of 2D Barcode used in engineering and manufacturing industries. Used to locate individual components during the manufacturing process.
European Article Number – The 13 digit standard retail barcode
used almost ubiquitously throughout the world. Only in the USA, they use UPC-A Barcodes
more commonly, although stores still accept EAN-13 Barcodes. EAN-13 can refer to the barcode number or the barcode format.
The encoding is the information that the barcode is generated from. In the case of an EAN-13 barcode, this would refer to the 13-digit number.
Can refer to the type of image file that the barcode image is in, the symbology of the barcode, or how the barcode is broken up into sections.
Global Location Numbers
are 13 digit numbers required by some stores as a prerequisite for trading. These unique numbers are used as location identifiers. These can be obtained through GS1 and some alternative suppliers.
GS1, or Global Standards One, are an international company that implements and enforces barcode standards. Barcodes can be purchased through them, though generally, an initial joining fee needs to be paid and annual memberships fees.
GTIN’s are Global Trade Identification Numbers
. These refer to any barcode numbers used in retail as part of the GS1 system. These could be GTIN-13’s (or EAN-13’s), GTIN-12’s (UPC-A) or GTIN-14 (ITF-14).
or Interleaved Two of Five’s are barcodes created from an EAN-13 number (adding leading digit) to be used on the cartons of the EAN-13 barcode’s product. These are large barcodes printed on boxes of 6 or 12 of an item used only for stock tracking purposes and not for retail selling.
Also called 2D Barcodes – Refers to barcodes that encode information vertically and horizontally instead of traditional 1D barcodes. These are capable of encoding much more information than normal barcodes. QR Codes
are the most common type.
A dotted 2D Barcode used by some postage services. While it can only encode small amounts of information, a central bulls-eye allows it to be scanned even when a parcel is moving quickly.
A way that a set of numbers (0-9) can be encoded to be read by a barcode scanner. Each number in the parity must be represented by a different combination of black and white spaces in barcodes. Each parity used in encoding one barcode number must be entirely different from all other parities used in the barcode symbology.
A type of 2D Barcode used for identification cards and e-tickets. Transport providers often use these.
Quick Response codes
are the most common kind of 2D Barcode. First developed for Toyota, these codes are now used worldwide to encode much other information. They are primarily used to link smartphones to URL addresses when scanned automatically.
Quiet Zones are part of the barcode specifications that refer to the white spaces on either side of the bars. These are required to be a certain size for the barcode to scan correctly and fit within the officially accepted specifications. Sometimes a ‘>’ is used to indicate how big the quiet zone should be.
refer to the dimensions that the barcode is required to be on a product to be officially accepted. Stores have different levels of tolerance for barcodes that don’t fit these specifications. Smaller stores don’t tend to mind so much.
Serial Shipping Container Codes
are 18 digit barcodes (with an additional 2-digit application identifier) used on pallets going into large retail stores. Each pallet requires a different SSCC code.
Symbology is the type of barcode or the way that the barcode is encoded. This word is sometimes interchanged with the format. The symbology is a combination of the parities used and in what order these are used.
Universal Product Code
– A type of retail barcode used predominantly in the USA (although theoretically accepted worldwide). These 12-digit numbers are encoded in UPC-A Symbology. These are effectively a subset of EAN-13 numbers.
A text format used to encode calendar events into a QR Code
so that when it is scanned, the phone will automatically add the event into the cell phone’s calendar.
A text format used to encode contact information into a QR code
so that when it is scanned, the phone will automatically add the contact information into the cell phone’s contacts.
An additional service
offered by GS1 and some barcode resellers consisting of a test scan of the barcode will be printed on the product to see how it is likely to scan in different environments. Usually, this is not necessary; however, some larger retailers require this. The barcode must strictly adhere to barcode specifications